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General date  
Capital: Ulan Bator.
Area: 1,565 million sq. km.
Population: 2 617 thousand (1999).
Admin. division: 18 provinces (aimaks) and
3 municipalities (khotuuds).
Language: Mongolian (khalkha-Mongolian).
Currency: Tugrik.
Large cities: Bayanhongor, Altay, Darhan.
Geographical position:
  • Mongolia is the state in northeast of the Central Asia.

State system:

  • The head of the state is the president. Legislature is one-chamber parliament (State Great Hural).


  • Climate is sharply continental, caused by remoteness from oceans, caused by absolute heights (average height above sea level - 1600 m), and apartness, due to chain of mountains from other parts of Asia. An atmospheric precipitation drops out slightly, mainly in the summer, in the form of rains. Big extent of territory from the north to the south and a variety of relief have caused a variety of environment, consecutive change of natural belts and zones: high mountains, mountain - taiga, mountain steppes and wood, steppes, deserted steppes and deserts. Belt of mountain steppes and woods considers the most optimum for human life.


  • Excavation of Karakorum, the capital of the Mongolian empire in times of chingisieds (XIII-XVI centuries), carries out approximately in 400 km to the west of Ulan Bator, on the left coast of the Orkhon river, near the city of Hara-Horina. There is the first in Northern Mongolia and one of the largest Buddhist monasteries (XVI centuries) nearby, nowadays it became a famous museum. Rocky figures of neolith and bronze epoch were found out to the Northwest from Hara-Horina, on coast of the river Chultyn-Gol. Rocky painting can be met in a canyon of the Chulut river, and in desert of Southern Gobi. There are a lot of huge paleolithic workshops. In steppes it is possible to meet ruin steles, which were gravestone monuments for Turkic kahans and for commanders (VI-VIII centuries). Mighty falls in headwaters of the river Orkhon where the river from height of 24 m falls in a deep basalt plateau is most attractive among natural phenomena; there are the rare cemetery of minerals of Cretaceous and the Jura periods (120-70 million years ago) in desert of Gobi, near spurs of Gobian Altai.

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