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General date  
Capital: Warsaw.
Area: 312 685 sq. km.
Population: 38 646 023 persons.
Admin. division: Republic in structure 16 provinces.
Language: Polish.
Currency: Zloty (100 pennies).
Large cities: Gdansks, Gdynia, Szczecin,
Swinoujscie, Gilwice, Kolobrzeg,
Ustka, Wroclav.
Geographical position:
  • Poland is situated in the Central part of the North-European plain, to the north from Carpathian and Sudetskie mountains. It borders with Russia, Lithuania, Belorussia, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czechia and Germany. From the north Poland is washed by Baltic sea.

State system:

  • Head of the state is the president. Legislature is two-chamber National Assembly (Diet and Senate). Number of the Diet make up 460 places, deputies are elected on complex system of proportional representation on 4-years term. Number of Senate make up 100 places, senators are elected by majority of voices on provincial system on 4-years term.


  • Climate is moderate with features of continental. Average temperatures of January are from -1C up to-5C (in mountains up to -8C), in July are from 17C up to 19C (in mountains they are up to 10C). Precipitations on plain are from 500 up to 600 mm. per year, in mountains they are sometimes over 1000 mm. per year.


  • Conducting industries are extraction of coal, natural gas, sulfur, lead and zinc, manufacture of electric power, mechanical engineering, chemical and petroleum-refining industry, black and nonferrous metallurgy, textile, sewing, flavoring, leather-shoe, furniture, cement, glass industry. The basic kinds of agricultural production are potato growing, grain growing, vegetable growing, fruit growing, animal industry, fishery.

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